Documentation Be sure that you understand the documentation system, MLA, used in this course; never manufacture your own style for notation. If you do not understand the system we are using, please ask; you are assumed to understand and have a copy of the Department of English statement on use of sources.
Be warned that documentation is expected whenever you cite some else's words or ideas. There are ample warnings on the syllabus about fair use of other people's work and academic dishonesty. You are responsible for asking questions if you are unsure about fair use of sources; you cannot plead ignorance. By attending class once and signing in, you indicate that you understand and agree to abide by Department and University regulations on use of sources.
See the Department of English website for examples of what is and what is not the correct use of sources. The reader should not have to guess what your "it" refers to or where your "there" can be found. Sometimes it is not easy to avoid the dummy subject—perhaps this sentence is a case in point, but I could have written, "Sometimes the dummy subject is not easily avoided"—a bit shorter and more compact. Learn how to omit needless words and get to the point.
For "She fell down due to the fact that she hurried" write "She fell because she hurried. But being concise does not mean being abrupt; say only what needs saying, but say all that needs to be said.
Note too that wordiness may result from uncertainty about what you want to say. Learn to recognize this "exploratory style" as a stage in writing a good sentence, as part of the process, but not the final form. Revise the evasive, indecisive quality out of your prose. Emphasis Structure sentences so that the important words and ideas stand out.
Put important ideas and words in slots which stress their value. Sometimes by reversing the order of clauses you can shift the focus of the sentence to the main idea away from a less important one.
For example, "We learn that he values nothing more than success when we see him kill his own brother. Evidence Your paper must supply evidence for your argument. If you think a passage reveals an important idea about the aspect of the work you discuss, you should cite it. Just as it's important to avoid paraphrasing a work summing up its plot , it's important to select evidence carefully don't string quotes together one after another to fill up space with redundant examples.
Your paper must argue the details of the text, not general ideas; the more detailed the evidence, the more persuasive the case. Your evidence will reveal your sensitivity to language and how authors use it.
Sentence fragments A fragment is a group of words or a phrase a dependent clause used as if it were a complete sentence an independent clause. A fragment can be a dependent clause—a clause which must depend on, be connected to, a main or independent clause to form a complete sentence. Sometimes fragments are used for effect—as in "She left the house in good order.
Or so she thought. Generalizations General statements have the unexpected effect of undercutting the writer's authority and causing the reader to question his or her judgment.
General statements tend to be abstract, categorical, and liable to be false. Nominalization Reduce wordiness by writing with strong verbs rather than weak verbs and nouns.
Verbs should convey the main idea and action of the sentence. Using nouns to name actions and weak verbs when strong verbs could carry the action and meaning of the sentence is called "nominalization. Paragraph design Every paragraph needs a central idea; the definition of a paragraph is A distinct passage or section of a discourse, chapter, or book, dealing with a particular point of the subject, the words of a distinct speaker, etc.
Oxford English Dictionary A paragraph a page long does not have ONE key idea but probably contains several somewhat related ideas run together. Examine the structure of every paragraph before you hand in a paper. What's the topic sentence? How do subsequent sentences relate to it? Parallel constructions Employ parallel constructions for parallel ideas.
Parallel constructions are easy to read and often express ideas elegantly and effectively. Strive to create them when they serve your purpose. Parenthetical phrases and restrictive clauses. Parenthetical expressions—phrases in apposition to a subject or to another phrase—must be set off by TWO commas, not one. For example, "In the third chapter, which he actually wrote first, the author claimed to have discovered the cure for cancer.
The "which" clause is set off by commas correctly here. These are also known as "nonrestrictive clauses" since they do not define the noun modified but add extra information. Passive voice Watch overuse of the passive voice structures in which the subject receives rather than initiates or performs the action: The ball was caught. Sometimes the passive is necessary and helpful, but too often it is abused and it obscures the real subject and action of the sentence.
The passive voice also becomes general and vague. It's usually better to write about people who do things than things which are done by an undefined somebody, especially if the whole point of writing is to write about people who ACT.
Possessives and plurals Contractions are a matter of correctness rather than style. The plural of man is men, and the possessive of men is men's, not mens'. Don't confuse "it is," contracted as "it's," with "its," the possessive adjective.
Example of the confusion: The cup lost it's handle. For "it's" here read "its. The boy's came home late. Pronouns Beware of vague or confusing pronouns and antecedents. Is it clear to what or to whom pronouns refer?
Is the referent suppressed? The disaster was reported in the papers. They still didn't act. If you write "Government officials still didn't act" the reader understands. Be careful, when you begin sentences or paragraphs with "This," that the reader knows which noun "This" refers back to—if I've written "This what?
Always supply a noun to follow: Get into the habit of questioning your use of "This" in the sentence-initial position. Make sure that a pronoun refers back to the correct noun and that the pronoun is not ambiguous if two men have just been named, "he" could refer to either one of them.
Make sure that you use "who" to refer back to people and "that" to refer back to things. Punctuation Ordinarily, use commas only where you pause when reading a sentence aloud: Use a semi-colon ; as you would a period, not a comma. Use a semi-colon to separate items in a list or to separate two closely related independent clauses, not a dependent and an independent clause.
Do not isolate a dependent clause by putting a semi-colon ; before it, e. Repetition Edit for economy; remove repetitious words and phrases. Repetition undercuts the progress of the paper and causes the reader to lose interest. Look at each sentence in isolation from its context and learn to identify the new information a new sentence adds to the one before.
When there isn't enough—or any—new information, you are repeating the old. Redundancy Avoid redundant and obvious expressions. Don't tell the reader what he or she doesn't need to know. Since Smith and Jones are different people, the reader assumes that they took differing views and has to reread the sentence to see if something has been missed it hasn't, except by the author-as-editor.
Try, "Smith and Jones took different views of the war. Run-on sentence are series of short sentences linked by "and" or some other conjunction these are very annoying to the reader they are easy to fix. Run-on sentences are series of short sentences linked by "and" or some other conjunction; annoying to the readers, they are easily fixed.
Quotations Two points here: Indent quotes of 5 lines or more; don't italicize them, shrink the font, or anything else; just indent them. If you indent, use quotation marks ONLY if the material is dialogue or direct discourse otherwise the quotation marks are redundant.
In every case, integrate quotations into your prose. Don't turn your paper into a patch-work in which your voice suddenly stops, and, without a transition, another voice begins. Such devices as "According to.
If you quote a sentence or two from any source, enclose the quoted material within quotation marks " " and give the page number outside the quotation marks. The narrator says that Janice stood "at six feet,"with "shining eyes, blond hair, and a warm smile" Do not write "smile, p.
See also the special link to citations above. A note about citations from web sources: A child with a graphomotor problem might: Experience a graphomotor difficulty. It's important to remember that many children and adolescents make mistakes or experience problems as part of the process of becoming better writers. They may reverse words, spell poorly, or have difficulty producing their thoughts in writing, or exhibit other of the signs above.
As in any academic area, teachers and parents must watch carefully and try to understand an individual child's strengths and weaknesses to ensure progress. One way to monitor progress is through collecting a portfolio of a child's work over time.
This may help in identifying a problem early on and developing effective strategies. Mel Levine explains how Nathan Suggs' ideas outpace his ability to get them on paper. Nathan's output problem focuses a lot on writing, which is the most common and demanding -- particularly at his age -- example of output. And for Nathan, he runs out of steam when he writes, he has motor difficulty with writing.
He's a good linguist, so it's not the language part of writing that's impeding him. In fact, his verbal output so far exceeds what his fingers can do that his engine gets flooded when he tries to write.
He also has difficulty mobilizing the mental effort needed for writing, and he has tremendous difficulty organizing an output -- conducting the orchestra.
You know, almost any project you undertake, whether it's a writing activity or something else, is the pulling together of multiple components: How am I going to pull together spelling, punctuation, capitalization, my prior knowledge, my new ideas, letter formation? How am I going to remember the directions that the teacher gave while I'm doing that?
How am I going to organize all this so that it has a beginning, a middle, and an end? That's a big orchestra to conduct, if you think of it. And some kids sit down, bright kids like Nathan, and say, "Oh my God, forget it. I'm going to go watch TV.
Correctly citing sources, writing a thesis statement and elaborating on ideas are a few common problems you may face. Knowing these pitfalls can help you remedy the situation as you complete your essay.
The most common problems essay writers have to deal with are as follows: Writer’s block. An overwhelming feeling of impossibility to write due to some inner or outer reasons (depression, personal problems, illnesses, external distractions) is called Writer’s Block.
Jun 22, · In the writing section, there are generally problem solution essays. It is my humble request if you could provide me with a source where there are more of problem solution sample essays, so that I can prepare accordingly and practice writing on the problems mentioned bestaload7j6.gqs: Problem solving essay is much harder than ordinary essay writing because: Topics need thorough literature review and analysis of current studies to provide the most relevant solutions with the contemporary significance;.
Sep 06, · In reality, problem solution essays are a way of writing out what we are always doing in our lives and work: trying to find a better way to do something. Because these essays are harder to write, it helps if you really care about the bestaload7j6.gqs: The most common problem, probably, is students failing to answer the question. By paying attention to the process and content words, the first part of the problem is already resolved. Writing in a planned and structured way, the remainder is addressed, too. By following the outlined approach to.