When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. MLA Modern Language Association style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook 8 th ed. Both books provide extensive examples, so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question.
In MLA style, referring to the works of others in your text is done by using what is known as parenthetical citation. This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase. MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation.
This means that the author's last name and the page number s from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number s should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence.
Both citations in the examples above, and Wordsworth , tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information:. These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke, which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry in the Works Cited:.
Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method. U of California P, When a source has a corporate author, it is acceptable to use the name of the corporation followed by the page number for the in-text citation.
You should also use abbreviations e. When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work such as an article or italicize it if it's a longer work e. In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title of the article appears in the parenthetical citation which corresponds to the full name of the article which appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry in the Works Cited.
Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. The Works Cited entry appears as follows:. We'll learn how to make a Works Cited page in a bit, but right now it's important to know that parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work.
Page numbers are always required, but additional citation information can help literary scholars, who may have a different edition of a classic work like Marx and Engels's The Communist Manifesto.
In such cases, give the page number of your edition making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume vol. When you cite a work that appears inside a larger source like, for instance, an article in a periodical or an essay in a collection , cite the author of the internal source i. For example, to cite Albert Einstein's article "A Brief Outline of the Theory of Relativity," which was published in Nature in , you might write something like this:.
See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited. Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials in your citation.
Best, David, and Sharon Marcus. Next, if a page number is available, type the page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence.
According to Brown, "standardized tests ineffectively measure student intelligence" Using author tags over and over can be cumbersome.
When you don't use an author tag, cite the information by typing the author's last name and page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence.
If the author's name is not known , type the title of the article instead of the author's last name. Some titles are very long and can be cumbersome in the body of the essay. If a title is determined to be too long, a shortened version of the title is appropriate. Include the page number, if known. If the page number is not known , omit it.
This is the case with most web page sources. If the source is from the internet or the Web, use all that is available from the following list: Title of the short work, in quotation marks. Title of the web site, underlined or italicized, just be consistent on which one you use. Date of publication or last update. Sponsor of the site if not named as the author. Date you accessed the source. The URL in angle brackets. Author's name Matthew Nisbet. Title of the web site, underlined or italicized, just be consistent on which one you use The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry.
Physiological effects of estrogen analogs: Insincere courtship xxxx behavior in female mice. J Physiol 40 8: Each model is shown as the full citation plus the in-text citation format. Physiological effects of estrogen on mouse courtship Bugjuice OR Bugjuice The role of whisker length in mouse J Physiol 61 3: The role of estrogen in J Physiol 2 6: Author s Unknown or Not Named.
If the authorship of a paper or other document is not provided, cite the author using the word "Anonymous" in the place of the authors name s.
A Survival Guide for College Students Anonymous OR Anonymous Behavior patterns of mice. Scientific format and style: The CBE manual for authors, editors, and publishers. Adenohypophyseal hormones and related Kuret and Murad Citing References in the Body Intro and Discussion of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper primarily the Intro and Discussion , whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information.
Top of Page Standard Text Citation Formats There are exceptions among the various journals, but generally, in biological journals, the most frequent types of citations are shown in the following examples in red: Typically, only the last name of the author s and the year of publication are given,e. Your Literature Cited section will contain the complete reference, and the reader can look it up there.
Notice that the reference to the book has a page number Gumwad This is to facilitate a reader's finding the reference in a long publication such as a book not done for journal articles. The paper by Bugjuice is short, and if readers want to find the referenced information, they would not have as much trouble.
When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author, cite it as Anon. Year, e.g., (Anon. ) (Anon. is the abbreviation for anonymous). See Full Citation. If you want reference a paper found in another article, do so as follows: (Driblick , in .
A "works cited" page is a list of all the works from which you have borrowed material. Your reader may find this more convenient than footnotes or endnotes because he or she will not have to wade through all of the comments and other information in order to see the sources from which you drew your material.
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page. APA Citation Guide: In-Text Citations (How to Cite Within your Paper) Learn the intricacies of APA Citation Style. APA is the citation style used by the Health Professions, Sciences, and Social Sciences.
The Works Cited page(s) is the final page(s) of the essay, and on it, there should be the correct page number(s). Type the words Works Cited at the top of the page, and center it. Then, list the sources used in the paper, alphabetized by the first word in each source, usually the author's last name. Chapel Drive Durham, NC () Perkins Library Service Desk.