It was the official system of racial segregation that spread across the south after the Civil War. Segregation was the separation of the races in every sphere of life to achieve white supremacy.
African Americans and whites were legally separated on streetcars, trains, steamboats, and every other form of public transportation as well as schools, hospitals, restaurants, hotels and even drinking fountains. These laws put "black" and "white" signs on every public facility. These signs historians say were public symbols of and constant reminders of black rejection Brinkley In the Supreme Court case "Plessy V.
Ferguson"the court authorized separate but equal facilities for blacks and whites which were in reality were not equal. African Americans throughout the south started organizing pro integration protest rallies which promoted bringing together whites and blacks in society, but these rallies had no effect on society Brinkley The Jim Crow trolley demanded blacks enter in the back of the trolley and they had to stay there.
Some of the public buses between Tuskegee and Montgomery refused to let "colored people" inside. African Americans had to sit on top of the luggage no matter what the weather was like.
Montgomery, which boasted the first electric trolley system in the country, was faced with a boycott in August of African Americans were urged to walk and not ride in show of solidarity against the cities unfairness to its paying passengers. This boycott lasted five weeks and it cost the trolley operator twenty five percent of its business. Eventually the company ended streetcar segregation in the city in the 's, but it was short lived in part because of the Klan's activities.
This largely forgotten boycott in civil rights history was an important event that preceded the Montgomery boycott that would bring Rosa parks international recognition.
Rosa said, " I had heard stories about the boycott, and I thought about it sometimes when the segregated trolley passed by. It saddened me to think how African Americans took one step forward and then two steps back" Brinkley In at the age of nineteen Rosa married Raymond Parks who was a twenty nine year old barber. She received her high school diploma the following year and supported the family by sewing and other jobs. Rosa remembered that when it came to voting African Americans had major disadvantages.
In a group of poor voters brought a constitutional challenge against the poll tax which was a fee charged across the south for exercising the right to vote. The group lost the challenge and the Supreme Court upheld the poll tax as constitutional. If a person was poor with no extra money, which most blacks in Alabama were, they could not vote. Another obstacle was literacy tests which were tests on reading and writing and if a person failed it they could not vote.
She tried to register to vote although she did not succeed until her third time. It was an organization founded to improve the conditions for African Americans in the United States Encarta 2. The southern bus systems all seemed to follow the same set of bus rules. In Montgomery for example all the city buses had thirty-six seats. The first ten seats were always reserved for whites and the ten seats farthest to the back were unofficially designed for the blacks to use.
The sixteen seats in the middle individual bus drivers imposed there own segregation rules on and enforced them with the threat of pistols they carried. Many drivers enhanced the degrading of blacks by making them pay their fares in the front of the bus, and then they had to get off and go all the way around to the back of the bus to board.
It was a form of everyday humiliation in Montgomery. Rosa said, " Some bus drivers were meaner than others. Not all of them were hateful, but segregation is vicious and to my mind there was no way you could make segregation decent, or nice, or acceptable" Brinkley One bus driver that stood out in Rosa's mind was a man named James Blake.
He was a major bigot who treated everyone that was black badly especially black women. He made blacks pay in the front and then as they walked outside to the back of the bus, he would leave them with a face full of exhaust as he raced off. One afternoon Rosa boarded through the front door of Blake's bus, because the back was filled with people.
Blake demanded that she exit the bus and get back on through the back door. She told him that she did not see the need to get off and back on again. He was infuriated with her and told her to get off his bus. Parks engaged in an act of passive resistance, named by Leo Tolstoy and embraced by Mahatma Gandhi, which was resistance by a nonviolent method.
This method she learned in Matthew 5: She not only refused to ride on Blakes Bus, but avoided them for the next twelve years. She walked wherever she went even in the rain rather than suffer further injustice. However in Rosa has another incident with a Montgomery bus that left the bus company in an uproar Brinkley On December 1st Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white man.
She went on the bus and she walked in the back of where white people were sitting. The bus was extremely crowded that day. On the second or third stop some white people came on the bus and there was one white man standing. When the driver noticed the man standing, he told her to get up. Rosa told him she was not moving from the seat and he threatened to have her arrested.
She said that he may do that and he did. Two policemen came on the bus and placed her under arrest. The public responded to her arrest as soon as it was announced. It was put in the paper and Mr. Nixon, who was the legal redress chairman of the Montgomery branch of the NAACP, made phone calls to a number of ministers. It is obvious that most of people simply got used to such treatment and only hoped that somebody will help them, but Parks was different. She protested actively and acted openly; demonstrated that she was against of such kind of society and struck for the rights for all Afro-Americans.
She is known for cooperation with the world famous Martin Luther King, another striker for civil rights. They worked in the dangerous period when such thoughts could cost a life. A well-planned research paper should present the biography of the famous woman and analyze the importance of her activity for the society. One must not dwell on simple presentation of the facts and events of her life, but make a profound analysis of the impact of her life on the freedom movement.
A paper should include brief presentation of the historical period and political situation of the country, express its problems, failure and success. All in all one has to combine the period and the person, because human actions depend on the environment she lives in. Students who write a research paper on Rosa Parks need to spend much time to study her life profoundly and to understand the difficulties and problems she had to cope with. The most common way out of young people who have problems with paper writing is to read free samples of research papers on Rosa Park in the Internet.
In order to write a successful research paper one has to read much about the topic. Read books, articles in newspapers, magazines, encyclopedias dedicated to the life of Rosa Parks. To collect thoughts in a good order it is useful to read free examples of research papers on Rosa Park and see how the paper of this kind can be presented by an expert.
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Parks also received the Congressional Gold Medal in and then in Parks traveled to Montgomery for the opening of the Rosa Parks Library and Museum. Now, there is an award that is in her name that is presented by the Christian Leadership Conference.
We can write a Custom Research Paper on Rosa Parks for you! A well-planned research paper should present the biography of the famous woman and analyze the importance of her activity for the society. One must not dwell on simple presentation of the facts and events of her life, but make a profound analysis of the impact of her life on the freedom movement.
Rosa Parks Research Papers Rosa Parks research papers discuss this key figure in the civil rights movement. This is a Rosa Parks suggestion on Rosa Parks from Paper Masters. Use this Rosa Parks or order a custom essay, written exactly how you need it to be. - Rosa Parks The woman who earned the title "Mother of the Civil Rights Movement", Rosa Louise Parks is a n enormous inspiration to the African American race (Girl Power Guests 1). Rosa was born in .
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